Bismuth is the heaviest nonradioactive element and is essentially a nontoxic neighbor of lead and thallium in the periodic table. It is mined as bismuth oxide (Bi2O3, also known as bismite) or bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3, bismuthinite), and the brittle, silvery elemental form is one of a few substances (water is another) for which the solid is less dense than the liquid. Although bismuth has been extensively used in alloys, pharmaceuticals, electronics, cosmetics, pigments, and organic, the chemistry of bismuth is perhaps the least well established of the group-15 elements (known as the pnictogens). Compounds of bismuth typically have low solubility in most solvents, so that definitive formula assignments are usually based on X-ray diffraction studies of crystalline samples that have been isolated in small or indefinite quantities. Most isolated compounds are unique rather than members of a series of related compounds illustrating fundamental chemical trends.
The bioutility of bismuth compounds has a 250-year history that includes numerous medicinal applications; however, the mechanisms of bioactivity are not understood. Moreover, as for most compounds of bismuth, the chemical characterization of biorelevant complexes remains incomplete. Although the “heavy metal” designation has impeded application of bismuth chemistry in medicine, two compounds have been extensively used for gastrointestinal medication for decades. Pepto-Bismol contains bismuth subsalicylate, and De-Nol contains colloidal bismuth subcitrate. The use of these compounds for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea, non-ulcer dyspepsia, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug damage, and various other digestive disorders extends from the previous use of bismuth compounds in the treatment of syphilis and tumors, in radioisotope therapies, and in the reduction of the renal toxicity of cisplatin.
It’s Elemental: Bismuth
TUMBLR I NEED TO TELL YOU HOW CUTE THIS BOOK IS. If you’re a fan of Celestia and Luna as characters then I’d definitely reccomend buying this book. It’s a journal written by them when they’re younger and have just been crowned princesses. There are so many little details, like Luna’s handwriting being messier than Celestia’s and stuff.
It also has some really interesting lore! I’m only a couple of pages in but I’v already found out that Celestia and Luna were born and raised as alicorns, and that “alicorns age at a different rate than the rest of pony races”, so when they were crowned they still didn’t have their cutie marks. It also talks more about the characters from the hearths warming eve story (confirming the gender of some of them), zebras, the crystal empire… I don’t really want to rush through it so I haven’t read all of it yet. It’s so cute though!!
At the end of the book, it has the journal entries written by the characters in the show in season 4. They’re not just copied from the script either, what a neat touch!
The goal of #SmallPetRespect is to encourage current and potential owners of small pets to become more educated on the animals they care for.
By tweeting facts and advice, we’ll destroy some of the myths and misconceptions surrounding the smallest of our companions.
When it comes to animals like birds (particularly budgies and cockatiels), small mammals, rodents, reptiles, fish (bettas need special mention), amphibians, arachnids, etc, many are picked up on a whim without proper prior research. Many of these animals are cheaply obtained at chain pet stores.
To make matters worse, many enclosures, tanks, cages, and habitats sold in pet stores are not suitable for the animals they are marketed for.
Many animals wind up mistreated due to ignorance and a prevailing attitude that such pets are disposable. It’s time to change that.
Do you share your home with a small pet? What would you say to someone looking into owning one? You can join the conversation on Twitter and Tumblr by tagging #SmallPetRespect.
Share stories, wisdom learned, facts, resources, advice and more. Please signal boost! Help us show that though they are small, all pets deserve respect.
It was only when the photographer looked at this picture later that she spotted this great horned owl had a baby, tucked tightly into the feathers on its tummy. It was taken by wildlife photographer Marina Scarr in Fort De Soto Park, Florida.
Picture: MARINA SCARR / CATERS NEWS (via Pictures of the day: 7 March 2013 - Telegraph)
Many-coloured rush tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra)
This tiny real-life “angry bird” is a small passerine bird of South America belonging to the tyrant flycatcher family. It inhabits marshland and reedbeds around lakes and rivers. The nest is built among plant stems.photo credits: Glenn Bartley, David Brassington